THE DALLES, Ore. — Conflicts over water are as old as history itself. Still, the massive Google data centers on the edge of this Oregon town on the Columbia River represent an emerging 21st-century concern.
Now a critical part of modern computing, data centers help people stream movies on Netflix, conduct transactions on PayPal, post updates on Facebook, store trillions of photos, and more. But a single facility can also churn through millions of gallons of water per day to keep hot-running equipment cool.
Google wants to build at least two more data centers in The Dalles, worrying some residents who fear there eventually won’t be enough water for everyone — including for area farms and fruit orchards, which are by far the most significant users.
Across the United States, there has been some mild pushback as tech companies build and expand data centers — conflicts likely to grow as water becomes a more precious resource amid the threat of climate change and as the demand for cloud computing grows. Some tech giants have been using cutting-edge research and development to find less impactful cooling methods. However, some say the companies can still do more to be environmentally sustainable.
, the concerns are understandable in The Dalles, the seat of Wasco County, which is suffering extreme and exceptional drought. The region last summer endured its hottest days on record, reaching 118 degrees Fahrenheit (48 Celsius) in The Dalles.
The Dalles is adjacent to the mighty Columbia River. Still, the new data centers wouldn’t be able to use that water and instead would have to take water from rivers and groundwater that has gone through the city’s water treatment plant.
However, the snowpack in the nearby Cascade Range that feeds the aquifers varies wildly from year to year, and glaciers are melting. Most aquifers in north-central Oregon are declining, according to the U.S. Geological Survey Groundwater Resources Program.
Adding to the unease: The 15,000 town residents don’t know how much water the proposed data centers will use because Google calls it a trade secret. Even the town councilors, who are scheduled to vote on the proposal on Nov. 8, had to wait until this week to find out.
Dave Anderson, public works director for The Dalles, said Google obtained the rights to 3.9 million gallons of water per day when it purchased land formerly home to an aluminum smelter. Anderson noted that Google requested less water for the new data centers than that amount and would transfer those rights to the city.